The law of biological variation: offspring like parents, offspring are not parents

Volume 8, Issue 3, June 2023     |     PP. 137-151      |     PDF (290 K)    |     Pub. Date: December 26, 2023
DOI: 10.54647/agriculture210392    60 Downloads     88766 Views  

Author(s)

Linyun Wang, College of Animal Science and Technology ,Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing-210095 China

Abstract
At present, there are 5 million to 30 million species of organisms on the Earth, how did so many kinds of organisms come into being? What is the pattern of their variation? So far, there is no satisfactory theory to explain it. Since Watson and Crick proposed the double helix structure model of genetic material DNA in 1953, human understanding of the causes of biological evolution has entered the era of molecular genetics. Over the past 70 years, human understanding of genetic phenomena has increased a lot, among which two points are very noteworthy. (1)The genome of organisms will undergo mutations and recombination in the course of generations. Mutation and recombination are the key processes that cause genome changes. (2) In the continuation of generations, regardless of sexual reproduction or asexual reproduction, heterozygous effects will occur. Heterozygous effects include: variation of DNA nucleotide sequence; Differences in mRNA expression (differences in gene expression rate and gene expression amount); Differences in protein structure; DNA methylation in certain regions; Multiplication of nucleotide sequences, entire genomes, or chromosomes; Heritable gene expression changes that are not caused by changes in DNA sequence, etc.The variation characteristics of organisms in the succession of generations show microdegree, gradualism, pluralism and randomness. Micro and progressive means that the variation of each genome is micro and progressive, the so-called "offspring like parents, offspring are not parents"; The diversity of variation refers to the variation of the nucleotide sequence in the offspring, which does not occur in one place, but in multiple places compared with the parent, which includes both nucleotide sequence variation and epigenetic phenomenon of non-nucleotide sequence change. The randomness of biological variation means that mutation and recombination are random, non-directional, and not affected by the environment. Beneficial mutations get positive selection and harmful mutations get negative selection. This is the main genetic cause of biodiversity on Earth. Due to the different length of time between generations of various organisms, some change faster, the reproductive cycle is only a few hours, a few days (such as some viruses, bacteria), and some change slower, to several years, even hundreds of years, thousands of years. The result of evolution is that some prosper, some become blind, some become new species, and some become dead.

Keywords
biodiversity, gene recombination and mutation, heterozygous effect

Cite this paper
Linyun Wang, The law of biological variation: offspring like parents, offspring are not parents , SCIREA Journal of Agriculture. Volume 8, Issue 3, June 2023 | PP. 137-151. 10.54647/agriculture210392

References

[ 1 ] Brown T.A., 2002a, Genomes, Jiangang Yuan et al. Trans. , [M] Beijing: Science Press, August 2002 : 10
[ 2 ] Brown T.A., 2002b, Genomes, Jiangang Yuan et al. Trans., [M] Beijing: Science Press, August 2002:199
[ 3 ] Brown, T.A., 2002c, Genomes, Jiangang Yuan et al. Trans. , [M] Science Press, August 2002, Edition: 375
[ 4 ] Brown, T.A., 2002d, Genomes, Jiangang Yuan et al. Trans. , [M] Science Press, August 2002, Edition: 376
[ 5 ] Brown, T.A., 2002e, Genomes, Jiangang Yuan et al. Trans. , [M] Science Press, August 2002, Edition: 376-379
[ 6 ] Brown, T.A., 2002f, Genomes, Jiangang Yuan et al. Trans. , [M] Science Press, August 2002, Edition: 379
[ 7 ] Brown T.A., 2002g, Genomes, Jiangang Yuan et al. Trans. , [M] Science Press, August 2002, Edition: 392
[ 8 ] China Daily [N](2006-05-19), Online edition of Nature 2006-05-17 [EB/OL], http://www.sina.com.cn 18:02 May 19, 2006 [N] Information Times
[ 9 ] Dacheng Tian , et al.,2008, Single-nucleotide mutation rate increases close to insertions/deletions in eukaryotes . [J] Nature 07175 . 2008. Vol. 455(4): 105-108
[ 10 ] Gen Chen, 2021, Delta Variant strains are prevalent in the world, Why does the novel coronavirus mutate? [EB/OL] Phoenix News 2021-06-21 09:07
[ 11 ] Genetic differences between humans and chimpanzees, [EB/OL] https://cn.weblogographic.com/genetic - difference between....
[ 12 ] Hao Jia, 2019, Genome Biology, the Third National College Genomics Teaching Seminar (2019, Chongqing)[EB/OL], July 22, 2019
[ 13 ] Hujun Li, 2003, we are from Ethiopia? [N] Southern Weekend,2003-6-26,
[ 14 ] Ji Qiu, 2005, The Life of human Beings. [J] Life World, 2005, 3: 37-38
[ 15 ] Jiayu Rong, et al., 2014a, Ancient Disaster, [M] Nanjing: Jiangsu Fenghuang Science and Technology Publishing House, December 1, 2014:14
[ 16 ] Jiayu Rong, et al., 2014b, Ancient Disaster, [M] Nanjing: Jiangsu Fenghuang Science and Technology Publishing House, December 1, 2014: Preface
[ 17 ] Jie Tang, 2006, What are genes? [J] Advances in Biochemistry and Biophysics, 2006, 33 (7) : 607-608, compiled from Helen Pearson, "What Is a Gene?" [J] Nature, 2006,441:399-401
[ 18 ] Lewin B., 2005a, Genes Ⅷ, Long Yu et al., Trans. [M] Beijing: Science Press, February 2005 (1) : 62
[ 19 ] Lewin, B. 2005b, Genes Ⅷ, Long Yu et al. Trans. , [M] Science Press, February 2005 :100
[ 20 ] Life Science Association of China Association for Science and Technology, 2018,Research history and global status of epigenetics [DB/OL] Sohu: 2018-02-23 12:00
[ 21 ] Linyun Wang, 2014, Gene exchange is an important driving force for changing pig Traits and on Gene exchange between Chinese local pig breeds and foreign pigs [J], Journal of Swine Science, 7 (2014):38-42
[ 22 ] Linyun Wang, 2015, On the top-level design of pig small group preservation, [J] Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, 2015 (47), No. 4:1-4
[ 23 ] Mei Li and Linyun Wang*, 2018,Some novel rules of the biological heterozygous effects [J] Indian Joural of Animal Research , 52(6):811-815
[ 24 ] Ming Yang et al., 2018, Molecular marker-assisted selection of fluoroalkyl in Pitland pigs, Journal of South China Agricultural University, 2018, 39(6): 1-4
[ 25 ] Qingyu Wu ,2002, Basic Life Sciences, [M] Higher Education Press, May 2002, Edition :14
[ 26 ] Science [J]2005.2.18, Genome Difference Map of different ethnic groups, [J] Life World 2005, 3:9
[ 27 ] Shougang Hao et al., 2000a, Origin and Evolution of Life, [M] Beijing: Higher Education Press, Springer, May 2000 :37-47
[ 28 ] Shougang Hao et al., 2000b, Origin and Evolution of Life, [M] Beijing: Higher Education Press, Springer, May 2000 :37
[ 29 ] Shouyuan Zhao et al., 2001a, Modern Genetics [M], Higher Education Press, August 2001:305
[ 30 ] Shouyuan Zhao et al., 2001b, Modern Genetics, [M], Higher Education Press, August 2001:298-305
[ 31 ] Tarjei S. Mikkelsen, et al. 2005, The Chimpanzee Sequencing and Analysis Consortium, Initial sequence of the chimpanzee genome and comparson with the humam genome, [J] Nature04072, 2005,dol:10.1038:69-87
[ 32 ] Xinhua News Agency, Discovery of "black chimneys", capture of new species, [N] Jinling Evening News, 2011-12-12, B06
[ 33 ] Yi Mo 2020, the virus strain in Beijing has mutated, with a nine-fold increase in infectivity! [EB/OL] wechat 2020-06-25