Applying the “Novosel formula”, Comment on: Gaetano D. Gargiulo: “True Unipolar ECG Machine for Wilson Central Terminal Measurements”

Volume 9, Issue 2, April 2024     |     PP. 70-73      |     PDF (124 K)    |     Pub. Date: May 7, 2024
DOI: 10.54647/cm321265    27 Downloads     2605 Views  


Dragutin Novosel, Glaserbergstrasse 23, CH – 4056 Basel
Petar Žuljević, Ulica dr. Franje Tuđmana 8c, HR - 21220 Trogir
Matija Alanović, SIPA elektronika d.o.o. , Ruđera Boškovića 17, HR - 47000 Karlovac
Robert Žunac, Petra Kržića 8, HR - 47000 Karlovac
Tina Bečić, University of Split, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Spinčićeva 1, HR - 21000 Split

In a publication from 2015, Gaetano D. Gargiulo (1) describe a novel device for the ECG recordings with various parameters, which were used for the sophisticated analysis of the ECG recordings – in this particular, he analyse and discuss the concept of the Wilsnon Central Terminal (2), including as a minor topic the estimation of the mean electrical axis of the heart. On page 5 of his paper (1), he refer to our earlier publication (3), which addresses the fundamental aspects of calculating the heart's mean electrical axis in the frontal plane. These aspects were independently assessed in other studies (4, 5) and further discussed in our subsequent publications (6, 7, 8). Here we intuitively assume (1) that tan-1 (as frequently used) is an arctan function, and not 1/tan as semantically defined

Electrical Axis, Novosel Formula, ECG

Cite this paper
Dragutin Novosel, Petar Žuljević, Matija Alanović, Robert Žunac, Tina Bečić, Applying the “Novosel formula”, Comment on: Gaetano D. Gargiulo: “True Unipolar ECG Machine for Wilson Central Terminal Measurements” , SCIREA Journal of Clinical Medicine. Volume 9, Issue 2, April 2024 | PP. 70-73. 10.54647/cm321265


[ 1 ] G. D. Gargiulo. “True Unipolar ECG Machine for Wilson Central Terminal Measurements”. BioMed Research International. Vol. 15.
[ 2 ] F. N. Wilson, F. D. Johnston, F. F. Rosenbaum, and P. S. Barker, “On Einthoven’s triangle, the theory of unipolar electrocardiographic leads, and the interpretation of the precordial electrocardiogram,” American Heart Journal, vol. 32, no. 3, pp.277–310, 1946.
[ 3 ] Novosel D, Noll G, Lüscher TF. Corrected formula for the calculation of the electrical heart axis. Croat Med J. 40.1 (1999): 77-79. Available at:
[ 4 ] Samuel, Rajini. (2023). Unlocking the Cardiac Vector Theory and Einthoven Equilateral Triangle Model for an Efficient Teaching Tool in ECG Interpretation. ARC Journal of Cardiology. 8. 12-22. 10.20431/2455-5991.0801002.
[ 5 ] Dahl R and Berg R. Trigonometry of the ECG. "A formula for the mean electrical axis of the heart". Physiology News. 120 (2020), 25-27. DOI: 10.36866/pn.120.25.
[ 6 ] Novosel D, Alanović M, Žunac R. and Bečić T. “Visualising the Novosel Formula: Comments on Dahl and Berg’s A formula for the mean electrical axis of the heart”. Physiology News /Autumn 2021 / Issue 123: 7-8.
[ 7 ] Novosel D, Žuljević P. Alanović M, Žunac R, Bečić T. „The challengen and pitfalls of limb-leads and heart-axis calculations. The differences between the overall magnitudes of bipolar and augmented unipolar leads cannot be explained with the Ohm's law“. PARIPEX. 11 (2022): 55-60. DOI: 10.36106/paripex/4505716.
[ 8 ] Novosel D, Žuljević P, Alanović M, Žunac R and Bečić T. Simple method to determine the normal cardiac axis with I (D1) and aVF. ASMS 7.10 (2023): 86-88.