Critically appreciating Ernest Everett Just’s Biology of the Cell Surface (1939) and related research: A literature review and annotated bibliography

Volume 9, Issue 1, February 2024     |     PP. 13-36      |     PDF (300 K)    |     Pub. Date: May 7, 2024
DOI: 10.54647/biology180367    26 Downloads     2720 Views  


Theodore Walker Jr., Southern Methodist University, Dallas Texas USA

The Biology of the Cell Surface (1939a) by Ernest Everett Just is focused on marine egg cells and egg cell surfaces. By observing, experimenting with, and theorizing about egg cells, and cell surface mediated co-operation with sperm, other cells, and environment, E. E. Just contributed to developmental biology, evolutionary biology, ecological developmental (eco-devo) biology, evolutionary developmental (evo-dev) biology, and evolutionary bioethics. According to Just, from cells to humans, development and evolution require co-operative behavior, and, in accordance with the “law of environmental dependence,” this is the natural evolutionary “origin of man’s ethical behavior” (Just and Just 1941). My hypothesis is that observing with a light microscope may have induced corresponding overestimates of ectoplasmic potence.

Stammzell, stem cell, common unicellular ancestor, egg cell, cell surface, law of environmental dependence, eco-devo, ecological developmental biology, evo-dev, evolutionary developmental biology, evolutionary bioethics, ethical behavior.

Cite this paper
Theodore Walker Jr., Critically appreciating Ernest Everett Just’s Biology of the Cell Surface (1939) and related research: A literature review and annotated bibliography , SCIREA Journal of Biology. Volume 9, Issue 1, February 2024 | PP. 13-36. 10.54647/biology180367


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